Posts Tagged teen smoking
Doctors are supposed to be the vanguards of health, but a recent study reveals that only a few of them intervene when it comes to teen smoking.
According to study author Gillian L. Schauer in her interview with Reuters Health, only 31 percent of adolescents in high school and middle school were advised by a healthcare professional to stop smoking. “Our results suggest that more than 6.6 million youth and adolescents who currently use tobacco or are at high risk for future smoking did not receive advice from their health care provider to quit or avoid tobacco,” Schauer said.
The study involved a survey of more than 18,000 teenagers all around the U.S. to ask them about tobacco usage and any discussions with health professionals about smoking. The results showed that while more than 70 percent of the kids have not tried smoking, 11 percent admitted to have smoked tobacco. Unfortunately, while majority of them were able to visit the doctor within the year, less than a third were given advice against smoking.
What’s more unfortunate is that only 32 percent of the kids surveyed said that a doctor or nurse asked them about smoking. “Young people often underestimate the addictive potential of nicotine, and 9 out of 10 adults who smoke started before age 18, making anti-smoking and anti-tobacco messages delivered by a health care provider an important intervention for youth,” Schauer stressed. “Given that tobacco is still the number one preventable cause of death and disease in the U.S., it is surprising that more clinicians are not intervening with adolescent patients to help them avoid or quit tobacco.”
We know peer pressure to drink, smoke, and try drugs is very much felt once an individual reaches his/her adolescent period. But a new study found that when it comes to smoking, friends’ influence is greater in middle school than in high school.
Researchers from the University of Southern California looked into the data of more than 1,000 adolescents who took part in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP), a community-based substance abuse prevention program. They were surprised to find that friends’ influence to smoke has more effect in junior high than in high school.
“Based on social developmental model research, we thought friends would have more influence on cigarette use during high school than junior high school,” lead author Yue Liao, M.P.H., a doctoral student in the department of preventive medicine’s Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, said in a news release. “But what we found was friends have greater influence during junior high school than high school. We think the reason may be that friends’ cigarette use behavior may have a stronger influence on youth who start smoking at a younger age. During high school, cigarette use might represent the maintenance of behavior rather than a result of peer influence.”
The researchers has also observed gender difference in friends’ and parental influence. Friends’ influence on cigarette smoking was higher for girls than boys during 9th and 10th grade. However, there was an increasing trend in friends’ influence from 9th to 11th among boys, whereas friends and parents had less influence on girls from 10th to 12th grade.
Liao said this could be explained by the fact that boys tend to foster friendship by engaging in shared behavior, while girls are more focused on emotional sharing.
The researchers hope their findings would pave the way for an improved intervention program in cigarette smoking primarily geared towards middle school students. Liao also recommends future study on sibling effects for a more complete picture of familial influence.
Time and again, health experts remind us about how a harmonious home can help in raising healthy kids. Children who grew in a violence- and drug-free home have high self-esteem and more resilient when struck with stress and adversities. Now there’s another reason why parents should strive hard in giving their kids a peaceful and loving household.
According to the researchers from the University of Toronto, children of divorced parents are at higher risk to develop smoking habit.
The researchers analyzed data of more than 19,000 American adults, and found that men who experienced parental divorce before they turned 18 are at 48 percent greater risk of smoking. Meanwhile, women who experienced parental divorce before turning 18 were 39 percent more likely to smoke than women from intact families.
“Finding this link between parental divorce and smoking is very disturbing,” lead author Esme Fuller-Thomson, Sandra Rotman Chair at University of Toronto’s Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, said in a university news release.
The researchers anticipated that the association between smoking and parental divorce can be explained by one or more of the following factors: lower levels of education or adult income among the children of divorce; adult mental health issues (e.g. depression or anxiety among the children of divorce); or other co-occurring early childhood traumas, such as parental addictions or childhood physical, sexual or emotional abuse.
Upon examining a representative sample of 7,850 men and 11,506 women aged 18 and over, the researchers found that more than 1,500 men and more than 2,300 women had experienced their parents’ divorce before they reached the age of 18. A total of 4,316 men and 5,072 women reported that they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their life.
The data analyzed by the researchers were drawn from the Center for Disease Control’s 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.
Co-author Joanne Filippelli, a University of Toronto doctoral student, said it is possible that “children upset by their parents” divorce may use smoking as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions and stress. Some research suggests this calming effect may be particularly attractive to those who have suffered early adversities.”
An expert on smoking cessation names medication and support as two effective approaches for people who want to quit cigarette smoking.
Melissa Hinton, a doctorate nurse practitioner at Intermountain St. George Pulmonary Medicine, said prescription medications are recommended for those who have tried to quit smoking before but were unsuccessful. She explained the importance of understanding the way cravings work and that finding a substitute to satisfy the desire for tobacco can significantly help to stop smoking.
“It’s important to remember that each time you quit, you are better equipped for success the next time,” Hinton said in the report featured on thespectrum.com. “Don’t count it as a failure. Every quit attempt is the foundation for successful cessation.”
Hinton also emphasized the role of parents and grandparents in motivating smokers to stop their addiction. She offered the suggestions below on what family members can do to help a loved one struggling with heavy tobacco use.
- Recognize how difficult it really is to quit and support your loved one in his efforts, whether he is ultimately successful or not. She said, “Be careful not to degrade and tell them you are proud of them for trying.”
- Have an open discussion with your loved one. “Many smokers are already pretty defensive, so make it a positive conversation and be careful not to attack,” Hinton explained. “Find reasons to quit that will benefit you both.”
- Help prepare for the “quit date” by moving ashtrays away from their normal locations.
- Ask how you can help and develop a support system. “Sometimes it may be as simple as encouraging them to hold on for another couple of minutes when a craving comes, or touching their elbow when you can tell they are struggling,” Hinton further noted.
Funding for anti-tobacco programs that target teen populations gets critical cuts in North Carolina.
Mecklenburg County was one of the first to suffer from the cuts as state officials voted to decrease funds for the said campaigns. This move did not sit well for the advocates of teen anti-tobacco use.
Tobacco Reality Unfiltered (TRU) spokesperson and coming senior Caroline Debello is one of the most affected by the cuts. As a messenger for the TRU, Debello brings the message against teen smoking to kids her age. She gets paid for her services but after what has happened, she might not be able to continue and her plans to travel all over the state might be put on hold. “To stop that, I don’t know how you have the guts to do that,” Debello claimed. “I think it’s ridiculous.”
The budget of TRU in Raleigh decreased from $17.3 million to a measly $2.7 million.
Results of the budget cuts have cost the Mecklenburg County Health Department to lose three of their health educator positions and at least $300,000 in funding.
National and state officials were quick to defend their votes favoring budget cuts for anti-tobacco programs. They say smoking rates continue to drop, thus the money will be used to sustain other health programs such as the Medicaid.
State Rep. Craig Horn shared why he decided to allow the cuts. Horn said: “I think that we can reduce state spending in this specific area so that available funds can be reallocated.”
But for teens like Debello, the future of teen smoking is now uncertain as statistics could once again shoot up as initiatives against smoking are lessened. Debello shared: “It is disappointing. It’s awful and it’s heartbreaking that we can’t keep doing this to try and make a difference in the state.”
A new study conducted by the researchers from the University of Vermont could shed light on the issue as to why teenagers behave differently towards substance abuse.
The proponents of the study gathered 1,896 14-year-old participants, the largest sample so far for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning procedure. The participants were given the task to press a button on a keyboard, but researchers would insert a signal at anytime for the duration of the test that commands the participants to stop the task. The brain’s reaction to the stop signal is used to measure a teen’s impulsive behavior.
Data gathered from the study were analyzed and the differences in the brain networks were noted to cause varying impulsive behaviors of the teens. Participants who were able to follow the cue to stop had certain brain networks “light up” on the fMRI scan.
University of Vermont post-doctoral researcher Robert Whelan said that a teen’s impulsive behavior dictates their susceptibility for drug and alcohol abuse and that there are differences as to how a teen’s brain react or “light up” as far as their impulsiveness is concerned.
It was also confirmed by Dr. Hugh Gravan, associate professor of psychiatry, that those whose brain networks function less on the impulse-regulating factor increase their risks for smoking and drugs and alcohol use.
The results of the study could be the answer to the question of whether brain changes occur before substance abuse happens or are caused by the unhealthy habits.
In a feature from CBS News, the team of scientists from the university emphasized the importance of studying brain networks to understand a teen’s risk for substance abuse. This could be a key to hopefully put a stop on meaningless deaths among the youth which are often linked to impulsive behaviors that are all preventable.