Urine tests are used to check the components that are detectable in the urine. Urine drug screening is a process wherein a chemical analysis is done to test patients for toxins or drugs present in the urine. Urine drug tests are commonly used to detect possible intake of illicit drugs.
As a measure of safety for companies nowadays, it is required for applicants to submit themselves to a drug screening test as a pre-requisite. More often, a urine drug test is used by companies as it is cheap and convenient. In some occupations such as law enforcement and transportation, it is required from them to submit to a random and periodic drug screening. Some countries have also mandated a drug screening procedure for those working in the transportation industry, from land vehicle drivers to aircraft pilots.
Urine drug tests are known to detect the major classes of compounds, including barbituarates, benzodiazepines, opiates and amphetamines as well as as cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP) and marijuana. This method of testing can be prone to false-positives, which may be caused by the intake of over-the-counter medications.
Urine drug tests are scrutinized for its reputation of being easily cheated. Dilution of urine, adding adulterants or substitution of urine samples are common ways. Drug testing facilities, however, also adopt practices to detect any attempt of tampering, like checking the temperature of the specimen as well as the presence of the usual components of regular urine.